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Austrija razmišlja o strožoj zabrani pušenja

Austrija razmišlja o strožoj zabrani pušenja


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Austrijski ministar zdravstva želi zabraniti pušenje u svim restoranima

Wikimedia/Fae

Austrijski ministar zdravstva najavio je plan potpune zabrane pušenja u svim restoranima do 2018. godine.

Ministar zdravstva Alois Stöger rekao je da austrijske djelomične zabrane pušenja ne rade posao, te je najavio svoju namjeru da uvede potpunu zabranu pušenja u restoranima do 2018. godine.

Prema The Localu, djelomične zabrane pušenja na snazi ​​su od 2008. godine. Pušenje je tehnički zabranjeno u svim zatvorenim javnim prostorima, ali postoje iznimke za neke barove, kafiće i restorane, a pušenje na radnom mjestu dopušteno je čak i ako nitko ne puši objekti. Iako bi pravila teoretski trebala dramatično smanjiti pušenje u barovima i restoranima, vlasti i osoblje u barovima i kafićima zabranu navodno uvelike zanemaruju.

Glasnogovornik bečke ugostiteljske industrije kaže da je sveobuhvatnija zabrana pušenja nepotrebna, ali austrijski zdravstveni savjetnici i Liječničko društvo u potpunosti stoje iza plana.

Prema Austrijskom liječničkom udruženju, studije pokazuju da bi mladi Austrijanci pušili samo upola manje ako ne bi mogli pušiti u kafićima, barovima i restoranima. Također postoji zabrinutost zbog učinaka pasivnog pušenja na ugostiteljske radnike koji moraju biti oko dima kupaca cijeli dan.

"Austrija mora poduzeti sljedeći korak", rekla je zdravstvena savjetnica iz Beča Sonja Wehsely. "Zabrana pušenja u restoranima već je normalna u Europi."


Dok Ottawa razmišlja o javnoj zabrani lonca, Denver otvara vrata pušačkim sobama

Budući da Grad Ottawa počinje razmišljati o svojim mogućnostima za reguliranje marihuane - uključujući i potpunu zabranu javne konzumacije droge - Denver, Kolorado, postavlja pozornicu za legalne sobe za pušače, a barem jedan zagovornik lonca preporučuje ovaj grad opustiti.

Denver će uskoro postati prva jurisdikcija u Sjevernoj Americi koja će licencirati tvrtke za javnu konzumaciju marihuane, koja se dugo smatrala očiglednom rupom u politici u relativno liberalnim zakonima Coloradoa.

"Vrijeme je da okonča taj osjećaj srama", rekla je Taylor Rosean, koja radi sa skupinom koja se prijavljuje za otvaranje nove tvrtke u centru Denvera pod nazivom "Vape and Play", gdje će pokrovitelji moći konzumirati marihuanu pomoću isparivača kanabisa.

Kad je lonac postao legalan u Coloradu 2014., podzakonski akti Denvera zabranili su njegovo pušenje u javnim prostorima, uključujući parkove. Propisi su također spriječili turiste, iznajmljivače i neke vlasnike stanova da legalno, bilo gdje, puše marihuanu.

Rosean je rekao da su ljudi bili prisiljeni "kvotirati sjene" i da su pušili, a on je preporučio Ottawi da uči na gradskim greškama i započne pravni režim lonca na desnoj nozi.

& quotMožeš 't napola legalizirati nešto & quot, rekla je Rosean. & quotVaš ' upravo ćete imati povećanje trvenja u zajednici, citata i ilegalne javne potrošnje. & quot


Grad razmišlja o izmjenama zabrane pušenja

Chad Lawhorn

Rasprava o zabrani pušenja u gradu više nije samo za barove i restorane. Emisija je sada na putu.

Gradski povjerenici u utorak će razmotriti izmjene gradske zabrane pušenja, uključujući stvaranje odredbe koja bi legalizirala pušenje u službenom vozilu. To je nezakonito prema trenutnoj zabrani.

I dr. Steven Bruner, aktivist protiv pušenja, kaže da bi tako trebalo ostati. Bruner, koji je bio jedan od glasnijih pobornika zabrane, rekao je da bi i zaposlenici trebali imati pravo da ne puše u automobilu.

“Recite da ste u tvrtki i da ste u automobilu s još troje zaposlenika koji su pušači i morate to disati ", rekao je Bruner. “Ako izvrše ovu promjenu, nećete imati zakonsku nogu na kojoj ćete stajati. ”

Bruner je rekao kako razumije da je dio vozila prema trenutnom pravilniku teško provesti, ali je rekao da ostavlja otvorenu mogućnost da se zaposlenici mogu podnijeti žalbu gradskim dužnosnicima i zaustaviti aktivnost.

“Ovaj cijeli pravilnik ionako se uglavnom temelji na pritužbama, "rekao je Bruner. “ Nije da bilo tko očekuje da će policajac početi uvlačiti ljude zbog pušenja u vozilu. No ako tamo ima drugih zaposlenika, treba ih zaštititi. ”

Phil Bradley, izvršni direktor Kansas Licensed Beverage Assn. i snažan protivnik javne zabrane pušenja, složio se. Rekao je da bi izuzimanje službenih vozila samo pokazalo da grad doista nije zabrinut zbog zaštite zdravlja zaposlenika – navedenog razloga zabrane.

& Pretpostavljam da zaštita zdravlja tih zaposlenika nije toliko važna, rekao je Bradley.

Gradski odvjetnici, međutim, preporučuju promjenu jer su rekli da je osiguranje vozila teško provesti iz nekoliko razloga. Jedan je da je vatrogasna služba primarna agencija za provedbu zabrane, ali nema mogućnost zaustavljanja vozila. Osim toga, Scott Miller, odvjetnik osoblja, rekao je da je često teško utvrditi koristi li se vozilo za poslovne ili privatne poslove. Također, rekao je, postoji zabrinutost zbog službenih vozila izvan Lawrencea koja putuju gradom i nesvjesno krše pravilnik.

Zaposlenici također predlažu izmjene drugih dijelova pravilnika. Konkretno, povjerenstvo će razmotriti promjene koje bi pojasnile kada je vlasnik tvrtke kriv za kršenje zabrane. Novi pravilnik jasno bi rekao da vlasnici barova, restorana ili drugih tvrtki ne bi bili krivi za kršenje pravilnika ako bi pokrovitelj pušio u njihovim objektima bez znanja vlasnika ili upravitelja. No, revidirani pravilnik također bi pojasnio da bi vlasnici ili upravitelji mogli biti proglašeni krivima ako jednostavno zanemare pušenje.

Te predložene promjene značajno se razlikuju od promjena koje su gradski odvjetnici predložili u lipnju. Te bi promjene dovele do toga da vlasnici i upravitelji dokažu da nisu znali da neka osoba puši u njihovim objektima. Miller je rekao da su zaposlenici napravili najnovije promjene nakon što su gradski povjerenici uputili osoblje da pokuša postići kompromis s vlasnicima barova i restorana.

Bradley je rekao da pokušaj ipak nije uspio. Bradley je rekao kako bi i dalje želio da vlasnici tvrtki dobiju popis posebnih radnji koje moraju poduzeti kako bi bili sigurni da neće biti podvrgnuti kaznenom progonu.


Boston razmišlja o još strožim propisima o duhanu

BOSTON - Za Jaya McGwirea, Churchillov cigar bar ovdje je mjesto za opuštanje i započinjanje razgovora dok pijuckate pića i pušite cigaru.

"Dolazim ovdje i upoznajem lijepe ljude", rekao je gospodin McGwire. "I ne mogu pušiti cigare u svojoj kući."

No, gospodin McGwire brine da se na kraju neće moći upaliti ni kod Churchilla. Bostonsko povjerenstvo za javno zdravstvo predlaže neke od najstrožih državnih propisa o pušenju, zabranjuje prodaju cigareta u drogerijama i na fakultetima te zatvara 10 gradskih barova s ​​cigarama i nargilom do 2013. godine.

Povjerenstvo je istaknulo da je cilj obeshrabriti mlade ljude da kupuju duhanske proizvode, da se štetni proizvodi drže izvan trgovina koje promiču zdravlje te da se zaštite zaposlenici koji su izloženi pasivnom dimu.

Odbor za zdravstvo glasat će o propisima 13. studenog. Ako budu odobreni, oni će stupiti na snagu u roku od 60 dana.

“Treba li duhan tretirati kao bilo koju drugu potrošačku robu? Ne ”, rekla je Barbara Ferrer, ravnateljica Odbora za zdravstvo. “Ne prodajemo oružje posvuda, ne prodajemo alkohol posvuda i ne moramo svuda prodavati duhan. Svi su oni opasni proizvodi i svi zahtijevaju regulaciju. "

Prijedlog je naljutio pušače i čelnike malih poduzeća koji kažu da se apoteke i cigarne nepravedno izdvajaju.

"Vjerujemo, iskreno, da je to diskriminacija", rekao je Jon Hurst, predsjednik Udruženja trgovaca na malo u Massachusettsu, koje zastupa mala poduzeća, uključujući ljekarne. "To veže ruke i prodavačima i potrošačima, a to ne bi trebala biti stvar vlade."

San Francisco je u srpnju donio uredbu o zabrani prodaje cigareta u drogerijama. Osporen je na sudu, a sudac je dopustio da zabrana počne 1. listopada unatoč neriješenoj tužbi.

Boston, međutim, nastavlja politiku s ograničavanjem cigareta u kampusima i planira zatvaranje pušačkih objekata. Pušački barovi izuzeti su od zabrane pušenja 2003. na svim gradskim radnim mjestima, uključujući barove i restorane.

Gospođa Ferrer, zdravstvena direktorica, rekla je da je prijedlog usmjeren na sve veći broj nargila barova u blizini fakultetskih kampusa, gdje pokrovitelji puše aromatizirani duhan iz cijevi za vodu.

Kafići, rekla je, obično privlače mlade od 18 do 20 godina, koji su premladi da piju u baru, ali žele mjesto za druženje.

"To je način da privučete nepušače da puše", rekla je gospođa Ferrer, dodajući da je počela pušiti nefiltrirane cigarete s 12 godina, a prestala je 10 godina kasnije. "Prodaju se djeci u Bostonu koja ne mogu ići u uobičajeni bar."

No, ljudi koji žele pušiti i zaposlenici ustanova u kojima to još mogu učiniti kažu da su njihova prava ugrožena.

"Ne bi se trebali baviti time da lokalna poduzeća prestanu poslovati", rekla je Drinnan Thornton, barmen iz Churchilla. “To je pitanje slobodnog izbora. Salone s cigarama ne posjećuju ljudi koji ne puše. "

G. Thornton je rekao da ne vjeruje da ga grad treba zaštititi kao zaposlenika.

"Na nikoga od nas ne utječe opasnost od pasivnog pušenja, jer svi uživamo u dimu iz prve ruke", rekao je gospodin Thornton.

Gradonačelnik Thomas M. Menino, koji se zalagao za zabranu pušenja na radnom mjestu 2003. godine, ali koji nije zauzeo javno stajalište o zabrani Zdravstvene komisije, kaže da bi trebalo poduzeti korake kako bi se duhanski proizvodi držali podalje od mladih, ali da je financijsko blagostanje treba razmotriti mala poduzeća.

"Gradonačelnik je pomalo zabrinut zbog dugogodišnjih poslova", rekla je Dot Joyce, glasnogovornica gospodina Menina, koja je rekla da je najviše zabrinut zbog toga što nargila barovi privlače mlade kupce, a ne cigarete koje privlače nišu klijentelu, ali je zabrinuti i zbog malih ljekarni.

„To je pitanje za koje vjeruje da ga Bostonsko povjerenstvo za javno zdravstvo shvaća vrlo ozbiljno“, rekla je gospođa Joyce, „i uzimajući u obzir sve različite scenarije za mala poduzeća. Udobno mu je što će donijeti pravu odluku. ”

Dan Loperfido (20), student druge godine sveučilišta u Bostonu, član sveučilišnog kluba cigara, rekao je kako grad ne bi trebao zatvoriti barove s cigarama. "Ovdje nikoga ne povrijedimo", rekao je gospodin Loperfido. Zabrana duhana u kampusima ne bi odvraćala, dodao je. "Ako djeca zaista žele cigarete ili cigare", rekao je, "pronaći će ih."


Žvakaća guma

Gdje: Singapur

Wrigley’s, Trident, Hubba Bubba - zaboravite na njih. Od 2004. Singapur je u cijeloj zemlji uveo strogu politiku zabrane žvakanja i uvoza žvakaćih guma. Nemojte ni razmišljati o žvakaćoj gumi na dnu, jer će vam svaki znak zamotane štapića izreći kaznu od 700 USD.

Ovo ludilo Bazooka počelo je 1983. godine kada je tadašnji premijer Lee Kuan Yew razmotrio prijedlog o zabrani žvakaćih guma zbog ljepljivih problema u cijeloj zemlji. Troškovi struganja žvakaćih žvakaćih guma s javnih površina, osobito u tranzitnom sustavu, rezultirali su time da je budući premijer Goh Chok Tong službeno stavio nogu 1992. Od žvakanja do uvoza, zauzeo je to mjesto potpisavši posebne uvjete 2003. Sporazum o slobodnoj trgovini s predsjednikom Georgeom W. Bushom. Ako se gušite zbog stomatoloških naknada ili kao pomoć pri prestanku pušenja, imate sreće. Vlada je napravila iznimke za propisane alternative i nikotinske žvake, ali obavezno ponesite bilješku od svog liječnika.


Brookfield razmišlja o zabrani pušenja u seoskim parkovima

Na zahtjev predsjednika sela Michaela Garveyja, seoski odbor Brookfield -a u ponedjeljak navečer pokrenuo je prijedlog o zabrani pušenja u seoskim parkovima. No, nakon mlakog prijema od strane povjerenika, pitanje će se uputiti na Povjerenstvo za igrališta i rekreaciju Brookfield radi daljnjeg proučavanja i moguće preporuke.

Garvey je rekao da mu je to pitanje skrenuto pozornost dok su s drugim roditeljima gledali bejzbolske utakmice u Kiwanis Parku.

"Postoje ljudi koji su mi se obratili u vezi pušenja od strane trenera na terenu, u zemunici ili u blizini zemunice", rekao je Garvey. "Mislim da bih to dao povjerenstvu za registraciju i dao im da vode sastanke [o tom pitanju]."

Zakoni o pušenju koji se trenutno nalaze u knjigama u Brookfieldu uopće ne obrađuju temu pušenja na otvorenom. Seoski pravilnik odražava državni Zakon o čistom zraku koji dopušta pušenje u zatvorenom prostoru na za to predviđenim mjestima i u barovima.

Seoski odbor donio je pravilnik ranije ove godine kao odgovor na sveobuhvatniju zabranu pušenja u okrugu Cook, koja zabranjuje pušenje u svim zatvorenim javnim prostorima. Taj je zakon stupio na snagu u ožujku za sve gradove u okrugu Cook, osim ako općina odluči donijeti vlastiti pravilnik.

Brookfieldova uredba može postati ništava ako guverner Rod Blagojevich potpiše zakon koji se trenutno nalazi na njegovom stolu i zabranio bi pušenje na javnim mjestima u cijeloj državi. Taj je zakon već prošao oba doma državnog zakonodavstva. Međutim, državni zakon ne odnosi se na pušenje na otvorenom.

Riverside je pred donošenjem zabrane pušenja za parkove u tom selu u nadležnosti Odjela za rekreaciju. Prema trenutnom zakonu Riversidea, pušenje nije dopušteno unutar 100 metara od rekreacijske aktivnosti, površine ili klupe u parku. Potpuna zabrana dijelom se razmatra jer neki povjerenici i Povjerenstvo za igrališta i rekreaciju uz rijeku smatraju da je propis od 25 stopa preteško primijeniti.

Povjerenik Brookfielda Michael Towner, bivši član Povjerenstva za igrališta i rekreaciju u Brookfieldu, izjavio je da podržava zabranu pušenja u parkovima „radi zdravlja naše djece. Morali bismo ovo pomno proučiti. "

No povjerenica Cathy Colgrass Edwards, bivša direktorica rekreacije u selu, rekla je da je zabrana problematična.

"Malo sam zabrinuta s aspekta kada postoji piknik na kojem obitelj iznajmljuje paviljon", rekla je. “Imaju piknik za obitelj i prijatelje. Ne znam sviđa li mi se ideja da im u tom pogledu ograničim zabavu. "

Edwards je također doveo u pitanje sposobnost provođenja zabrane.

"Ne znam bi li policija mogla provesti tako nešto", rekao je Edwards. "Ako to učinimo, učinimo to kako bi se moglo provesti."

Povjerenik C.P. Hall je smatrao da je potpuna zabrana u parkovima neprikladna, ali je natuknuo da bi mogao podržati zabranu u određenim područjima parka, kao što su u blizini bejzbolskih terena, opreme za parkove ili tribina za koncesiju.

"Da postoji zabrana oko odjeljka za izbjeljivanje, složio bih se s tim", rekao je Hall. "Ali zabraniti pušenje u cijelom parku mislim da je korak predaleko."

U seoskom su odboru još dva bivša člana Povjerenstva za igrališta i rekreaciju, Yvonne Prause i David LeClere. Nitko od njih u ponedjeljak nije izrazio mišljenje o predloženoj zabrani.

Povjerenstvo za rekreaciju vjerojatno će razmotriti ovo pitanje na svom sastanku u srpnju.


Quebec razmišlja o tome da maske postanu obvezne nakon zabrane vela

Manje od godinu dana nakon što je usvojen zakon o sekularizmu koji prisiljava određene pripadnike vjerskih manjina da otkriju svoje glave i lica, Quebec sada raspravlja hoće li prisiliti sve da stave maske.

Kao pokrajina u središtu kanadske epidemije koronavirusa, Quebec trenutno "snažno preporučuje" građanima da nose maske - ali ta mjera neće biti obavezna.

Upitan zašto ne, Horacio Arruda, ravnatelj pokrajinskog javnog zdravstva, rekao je novinarima: "Morate imati dobar argument za kršenje individualnih prava radi kolektivnog prava."

No, takvi argumenti šuplji su Nour Farhat, odvjetnici iz Montreala čiji su snovi da postane krunski tužitelj srušeni nakon što je vlada u Quebecu prošle godine donijela zakon kojim se određenim radnicima u javnom sektoru zabranjuje nošenje vjerskih simbola na poslu.

Zakon - poznat kao Bill 21 - uglavnom pogađa muslimanke koje rade u obrazovanju, pravu i drugim javnim sektorima.

“Zakon 21 krši prava vjerskih manjina bez stvarne ili hitne situacije. A sada kada smo u stvarnoj i hitnoj situaciji, premijeru je stalo do kršenja ljudskih prava ", rekao je Farhat.

"Za njih je uvijek bilo u redu kršiti prava vjerskih manjina."

Zakon 21 uvijek je dopuštao maske iz medicinskih razloga, a predstavnici državnih medija kažu da njihovo oklijevanje s maskama nije povezano s tim zakonom.

Žena koja nosi masku odlazi iz trgovine Costco u Montrealu prošlog mjeseca. Fotografija: Graham Hughes/AP

No, pokrivači za glavu i lice imaju određenu političku težinu u Quebecu. Posljednjih godina zabilježeno je više slučajeva ljudi koji pokušavaju oteti hidžab ženskim glavama u provinciji. I samo je prošle godine Montreal poništio sedmogodišnju zabranu ljudima koji nose maske na prosvjedima.

Proturječnosti su nadahnule škrti komentar: kanadska web stranica za satiru Beaverton nedavno je objavila priču pod naslovom "Quebec je odjednom u redu s ljudima koji pokrivaju lica".

Postoji presedan da maske postanu obvezne, rekao je ugledni odvjetnik za građanska prava Julius Gray, koji je rekao da je zabrana pušenja u zatvorenim prostorima potvrđena unatoč sugestijama da krši aspekte povelje o pravima zemlje.

“Povelja kaže‘ život, sloboda i sigurnost osobe ’. Ne možete samo staviti stres na slobodu i zaboraviti život i sigurnost ”, rekao je. "Mislim da bi bilo zakonito zahtijevati masku razumno [u zatvorenim prostorima], sve dok se to ne učini na diskriminirajući način."

Dodao je da mjere fizičkog distanciranja koje se trenutno donose možda već krše neka prava povelje, poput slobode udruživanja - iako s dobrim razlogom.

Quebec je zabilježio više slučajeva koronavirusa i više smrtnih slučajeva nego bilo koja druga regija Kanade, ali pokrajinska vlada poslala je miješane poruke o tome pomažu li maske u ograničavanju širenja Covid-19.

Arruda je 18. ožujka u jednom minutnom video najavi javne službe rekao: „Maske ne sprječavaju prijenos zajednice ... Ako se želite zaštititi, nije maska ​​važna. Samo operite ruke. ”

Uslijedio je niz oprečnih izjava pokrajinskih i saveznih dužnosnika, sve dok glavna kanadska službenica za javno zdravstvo, dr. Theresa Tam, nije početkom travnja rekla da će nošenje maski u javnosti pomoći u ograničavanju širenja Covid-19. Američki centri za kontrolu i prevenciju bolesti i Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija dali su slične izjave.

Globalno, ima primjera zajednica koje su primijenile obavezne maske. Jena, njemački grad s oko 110.000 stanovnika, učinio je to krajem ožujka i zabilježio je brzo usporavanje stope infekcije Covid-19. Njegov pristup bio je toliko uspješan da je prošlog tjedna uspio ponovno otvoriti barove i restorane.

Glasnogovornik vlade Quebeca rekao je da nema planova da maske postanu obvezne sve dok se ne objave znanstveni dokazi koji pokazuju da smanjuju prijenos Covid-19 u zajednici te se može osigurati dovoljno za opskrbu cijele pokrajine.


San Francisco razmišlja o zabrani pušenja i vapinga za duhan i marihuanu, Meksiko Masovna grobnica ima 113 tijela, više. (24.11.20.)

U Fort Worthu u Teksasu tužitelji će odbaciti manje optužbe za marihuanu uz jedno veliko upozorenje, kolumbijski ministar obrane kaže da je iskorijenjivanje koke na putu, i još mnogo toga.

Fort Vrijedi odbaciti male slučajeve lonaca - ako ljudi prođu tri testa na drogu u tri mjeseca [15]. Okružni tužitelj Tužiteljstva u okrugu Tarrant (Fort Worth) najavio je da će odbaciti manje slučajeve posjedovanja marihuane, ali samo ako okrivljenik u tri mjeseca prođe tri testa na drogu. Posjedovanje manje od dvije unce marihuane najčešća je kaznena prijava u županiji. & quotJedan od ciljeva kaznenopravnog sustava je rehabilitacijska trezvenost početak te rehabilitacije, rekla je tužiteljica okruga Tarrannt Sharen Wilson. & quotKada ponesete dokaz o tri mjeseca trijeznosti - 90 dana - optužba će biti odbačena. & quot

Ponuda San Francisca za zabranu pušenja, uključujući marihuanu, u stambenim zgradama izaziva protivljenje [16]. Predsjednik Gradskog odbora nadzornika Norman Yee uveo je mjeru koja će zabraniti ljudima pušenje ili isparavanje duhana i marihuane u njihovim stanovima. Mjera bi se primjenjivala na zgrade s najmanje tri jedinice. No, ovaj potez izaziva protivljenje progresivnih LGBTQ skupina te zagovornika medicinske i rekreacijske marihuane. Yeejev plan dopušta medicinsku marihuanu, ali to ne smiruje zagovornike. Glasanje pred punim vijećem zakazano je za 1. prosinca.

Međunarodni

Kolumbijski ministar obrane kaže da će županija ispuniti cilj iskorjenjivanja koke za 2020. godinu [17]. Ministar obrane Carlos Holmes Trujillo izjavio je u ponedjeljak da će zemlja ispuniti cilj iskorjenjivanja koke 2020. Vlada je postavila cilj od 320.000 hektara iskorijenjenih i do sada je iskorijenilo oko 300.000 hektara. To je povećanje od 30% u odnosu na prošlu godinu. Program uključuje operacije iskorjenjivanja zraka koje uključuju vjerojatno otrovnu tvar herbicid glifosat, pa je malo vjerojatno da će u uzgoju ostaviti više od kratkoročne udubljenja [18].

Masovna grobnica s najmanje 113 tijela pronađenih u Meksiku i državi Jalisco [19]. Masovna grobnica u državi Jalisco koja je otkrivena 2. listopada sada je dala najmanje 113 tijela. Jalisco je jedno od najnasilnijih ratišta narko -kartela u zemlji i dom je većine tijela pronađenih u tajnim masovnim grobnicama od 2006. godine, prema nedavnom vladinom izvješću.


Dim na stazama: Država razmišlja o zabrani pušenja

Pušenje u državnim parkovima u Oregonu uskoro bi moglo biti prošlost jer državni odjel za parkove i rekreaciju razmišlja o promjeni svojih pravila. Javna rasprava održana je u utorak navečer u Bendu.

Ako se odobri, pravilo bi zabranilo pušenje na otvorenim prostorima, poput pješačkih staza. Pušenje je već zabranjeno u javnim zgradama u parkovima.

Pušači bi i dalje mogli pušiti u osobnim vozilima, šatorima i kamionima te kampovima u razvijenim područjima za kampiranje preko noći.

“Očigledno postoje problemi s rabljenim dimom, "rekao je Richard Walkoski iz OPRD-a. “Ali još veći problem za nas je smeće koje je ostalo, opušci. ”

Ciljevi prijedloga odjela su smanjenje otpada i zaštita prirodnih resursa unutar parkova.

Od prošlog tjedna država traži povratne informacije o tom pitanju. U Oregonu su zakazana četiri javna saslušanja.

Jedna stvar koja se često pojavljivala je kako sadašnje novo pravilo ne zabranjuje pušenje na plažama u Oregonu.

“Oni (povjerenstvo) mogu nas uputiti da nastavimo i razmotrimo ograničenja pušenja, ili barem provesti neka javna saslušanja o ograničenjima pušenja na obali oceana, "rekao je Walkoski.


Sadržaj

George je rođen 3. lipnja 1865. u Marlborough Houseu u Londonu. Bio je drugi sin Alberta Edwarda, princa od Walesa, i Alexandre, princeze od Walesa. Otac mu je bio najstariji sin kraljice Viktorije i princa Alberta, a majka najstarija kći kralja Christiana IX i kraljice Louise od Danske. Krstio ga je u dvorcu Windsor 7. srpnja 1865. nadbiskup Canterburyja Charles Longley. [1]

Kao mlađi sin princa od Walesa, nije se očekivalo da će George postati kralj. Bio je treći u redu za prijestolje, nakon oca i starijeg brata, princa Alberta Victora. George je bio samo 17 mjeseci mlađi od Alberta Victora, a dva su se princa školovala zajedno. John Neale Dalton imenovan je za njihovog učitelja 1871. Ni Albert Victor ni George nisu intelektualno briljirali. [2] Kako je njihov otac smatrao da je mornarica "najbolja moguća obuka za bilo kojeg dječaka", [3] u rujnu 1877., kada je George imao 12 godina, oba su se brata pridružila brodu za obuku kadeta HMS Britannia u Dartmouthu, Devon. [4]

Tri godine, od 1879., kraljevska braća služila su na HMS -u Bacchante, u pratnji Daltona. Obišli su kolonije Britanskog carstva na Karibima, Južnoj Africi i Australiji te posjetili Norfolk, Virginiju, kao i Južnu Ameriku, Mediteran, Egipat i istočnu Aziju. Godine 1881. u posjetu Japanu, George je lokalnom umjetniku istetovirao plavi i crveni zmaj na ruci [5], a primio ga je u audijenciju car Meiji George, a njegov brat je carici Haruko poklonio dvije wallabie iz Australije. [6] Dalton je napisao njihov put pod naslovom Krstarenje HMS Bacchanteom. [7] Između Melbournea i Sydneya, Dalton je zabilježio viđenje Leteći Nizozemac, mitski brod duhova. [8] Kad su se vratili u Britaniju, kraljica se požalila da njezini unuci ne mogu govoriti francuski ili njemački, pa su proveli šest mjeseci u Lausanni u krajnje neuspješnom pokušaju da nauče drugi jezik. [9] Nakon Lausanne, braća su se razdvojila Albert Victor je pohađao Trinity College u Cambridgeu, dok je George nastavio u Kraljevskoj mornarici. Putovao je svijetom, posjetivši mnoga područja Britanskog Carstva. Tijekom svoje pomorske karijere zapovijedao je Torpedni brod 79 u kućnim vodama, zatim HMS Drozd na kolodvoru Sjeverna Amerika i Zapadna Indija. Njegova posljednja aktivna služba bila je zapovjednik HMS -a Melampus u 1891–92. Od tada je njegov pomorski čin uvelike bio počasni. [10]

Kao mladić predodređen za službu u mornarici, princ George služio je dugi niz godina pod zapovjedništvom svog ujaka, princa Alfreda, vojvode od Edinburga, koji je bio stacioniran na Malti. Tamo se zbližio i zaljubio u svoju sestričnu, princezu Marie od Edinburga. Njegovi baka, otac i ujak odobrili su utakmicu, ali su se njegova majka i tetka - princeza od Walesa i Marija Aleksandrovna, vojvotkinja od Edinburga - usprotivile. Princeza od Walesa smatrala je da je obitelj previše pronjemačka, a vojvotkinja od Edinburga nije voljela Englesku. Vojvotkinja, jedina kći ruskog Aleksandra II, zamjerala je činjenicu da je kao supruga mlađeg sina britanskog suverena morala dati prednost Georgeovoj majci, princezi od Walesa, čiji je otac bio maloljetni Nijemac princa prije nego što je neočekivano pozvan na dansko prijestolje. Vođena majkom, Marie je odbila Georgea kad ju je zaprosio. Udala se 1893. za Ferdinanda, budućeg kralja Rumunjske. [11]

U studenom 1891. Georgeov stariji brat, Albert Victor, zaručio se sa svojim drugim rođakom nakon što je uklonio princezu Victoria Mary od Tecka, poznatu kao "svibanj" u obitelji. [12] Njeni su roditelji bili Francis, vojvoda od Tecka (član morganatske, kadetske podružnice Kuće Württemberg) i princeza Mary Adelaide od Cambridgea, unuka po muškom rodu kralja Georgea III i prva rođakinja kraljice Viktorije . [13]

14. siječnja 1892., šest tjedana nakon službenog zaruka, Albert Victor umro je od upale pluća, ostavljajući Georgea drugog u redu za prijestolje, i vjerojatno će uspjeti nakon svog oca. George se tek bio oporavio od teške bolesti, nakon što je šest tjedana ležao u krevetu s tifusnom groznicom, bolešću za koju se smatralo da je ubila njegova djeda princa Alberta. [14] Kraljica Victoria i dalje je smatrala princezu May prikladnom za svog unuka, a George i May zbližili su se tijekom zajedničkog perioda žalovanja. [15]

Godinu dana nakon smrti Alberta Victora, George je zaprosio May i bio je prihvaćen. Vjenčali su se 6. srpnja 1893. u Royal Chapel u palači St James u Londonu. Cijeli život ostali su odani jedno drugome. George je, prema vlastitom priznanju, bio nesposoban izraziti svoje osjećaje u govoru, ali često su razmjenjivali ljubavna pisma i note dražesnosti. [16]

Smrt njegovog starijeg brata doista je okončala Georgeovu pomorsku karijeru, jer je sada bio drugi u redu za prijestolje, nakon svog oca. [17] Kraljica Viktorija 24. svibnja 1892. stvorila je Georgea za vojvodu od Yorka, grofa od Invernessa i baruna Killarneya, [18] te je dobio pouke iz ustavne povijesti od J. R. Tannera. [19]

Vojvoda i vojvotkinja od Yorka imali su pet sinova i kćer. Randolph Churchill tvrdio je da je George strog otac, u mjeri u kojoj su se njegova djeca užasavala njega, te da je George primijetio grofu od Derbyja: "Moj se otac uplašio svoje majke, ja sam se uplašio svog oca, a ja vraški ću se pobrinuti da se moja djeca mene boje. " U stvarnosti, nema izravnog izvora za citat i vjerojatno je Georgeov stil roditeljstva bio malo drugačiji od onog koji je usvojila većina ljudi u to vrijeme. [20] Bilo da je to bio slučaj ili ne, činilo se da su mu se djeca doista zamjerila njegovoj strogoj naravi, pa je princ Henry u kasnijim godinama čak i opisivao njega kao "strašnog oca". [21]

Živjeli su uglavnom u York Cottageu [22], relativno maloj kući u Sandringhamu u Norfolku, gdje je njihov način života više odražavao život ugodne obitelji srednje klase, a ne kraljevske obitelji. [23] George je preferirao jednostavan, gotovo miran život, u izrazitoj suprotnosti sa živahnim društvenim životom kojim se bavio njegov otac. Njegov službeni biograf, Harold Nicolson, kasnije je očajavao u doba Georgea kao vojvode od Yorka, napisavši: "Možda je on u redu kao mlad vojnik i mudri stari kralj, ali kad je bio vojvoda od Yorka, nije učinio ništa osim što je ubio [tj. strijeljati] životinje i zalijepiti se u marke. "[24] George je bio strastveni sakupljač marki, što je Nicolson omalovažavao [25], ali George je odigrao veliku ulogu u izgradnji Kraljevske zbirke filatelista u najopsežniju zbirku marki Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva i Commonwealtha u svijetu, u nekim slučajevima postavljajući rekordne otkupne cijene za artikle. [26]

U listopadu 1894. umro je Georgeov ujak po majci, ruski car Aleksandar III. Na zahtjev njegova oca, "iz poštovanja prema sjećanju jadnog dragog ujaka Saše", George se pridružio roditeljima u Sankt Peterburgu na sprovodu. [27] On i njegovi roditelji ostali su u Rusiji na vjenčanju tjedan dana kasnije novog ruskog cara, njegovog rođaka Nikole II, s još jednim od Georgeovih prvih rođaka, princezom Alix od Hessena i od Rajne, koja se nekad smatrala potencijalna mladenka za Georgeova starijeg brata. [28]

Kao vojvoda od Yorka, George je obavljao razne javne dužnosti. Nakon smrti kraljice Viktorije 22. siječnja 1901., Georgeov otac je stupio na prijestolje kao kralj Edward VII. [29] George je naslijedio titulu vojvode od Cornwalla, a veći dio te godine bio je poznat kao vojvoda od Cornwalla i Yorka. [30]

Godine 1901. vojvoda i vojvotkinja obišli su Britansko carstvo. Njihova turneja uključivala je Gibraltar, Maltu, Port Said, Aden, Cejlon, Singapur, Australiju, Novi Zeland, Mauricijus, Južnu Afriku, Kanadu i koloniju Newfoundland. The tour was designed by Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain with the support of Prime Minister Lord Salisbury to reward the Dominions for their participation in the South African War of 1899–1902. George presented thousands of specially designed South African War medals to colonial troops. In South Africa, the royal party met civic leaders, African leaders, and Boer prisoners, and was greeted by elaborate decorations, expensive gifts, and fireworks displays. Despite this, not all residents responded favourably to the tour. Many white Cape Afrikaners resented the display and expense, the war having weakened their capacity to reconcile their Afrikaner-Dutch culture with their status as British subjects. Critics in the English-language press decried the enormous cost at a time when families faced severe hardship. [31]

In Australia, the Duke opened the first session of the Australian Parliament upon the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia. [32] In New Zealand, he praised the military values, bravery, loyalty, and obedience to duty of New Zealanders, and the tour gave New Zealand a chance to show off its progress, especially in its adoption of up-to-date British standards in communications and the processing industries. The implicit goal was to advertise New Zealand's attractiveness to tourists and potential immigrants, while avoiding news of growing social tensions, by focusing the attention of the British press on a land few knew about. [33] On his return to Britain, in a speech at Guildhall, London, George warned of "the impression which seemed to prevail among [our] brethren across the seas, that the Old Country must wake up if she intends to maintain her old position of pre-eminence in her colonial trade against foreign competitors." [34]

On 9 November 1901, George was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. [35] [36] King Edward wished to prepare his son for his future role as king. In contrast to Edward himself, whom Queen Victoria had deliberately excluded from state affairs, George was given wide access to state documents by his father. [17] [37] George in turn allowed his wife access to his papers, [38] as he valued her counsel and she often helped write her husband's speeches. [39] As Prince of Wales, he supported reforms in naval training, including cadets being enrolled at the ages of twelve and thirteen, and receiving the same education, whatever their class and eventual assignments. The reforms were implemented by the then Second (later First) Sea Lord, Sir John Fisher. [40]

From November 1905 to March 1906, George and May toured British India, where he was disgusted by racial discrimination and campaigned for greater involvement of Indians in the government of the country. [41] The tour was almost immediately followed by a trip to Spain for the wedding of King Alfonso XIII to Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, a first cousin of George, at which the bride and groom narrowly avoided assassination. [42] A week after returning to Britain, George and May travelled to Norway for the coronation of King Haakon VII, George's cousin and brother-in-law, and Queen Maud, George's sister. [43]

On 6 May 1910, Edward VII died, and George became king. He wrote in his diary,

I have lost my best friend and the best of fathers . I never had a [cross] word with him in my life. I am heart-broken and overwhelmed with grief but God will help me in my responsibilities and darling May will be my comfort as she has always been. May God give me strength and guidance in the heavy task which has fallen on me [44]

George had never liked his wife's habit of signing official documents and letters as "Victoria Mary" and insisted she drop one of those names. They both thought she should not be called Queen Victoria, and so she became Queen Mary. [45] Later that year, a radical propagandist, Edward Mylius, published a lie that George had secretly married in Malta as a young man, and that consequently his marriage to Queen Mary was bigamous. The lie had first surfaced in print in 1893, but George had shrugged it off as a joke. In an effort to kill off rumours, Mylius was arrested, tried and found guilty of criminal libel, and was sentenced to a year in prison. [46]

George objected to the anti-Catholic wording of the Accession Declaration that he would be required to make at the opening of his first parliament. He made it known that he would refuse to open parliament unless it was changed. As a result, the Accession Declaration Act 1910 shortened the declaration and removed the most offensive phrases. [47]

George and Mary's coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 22 June 1911, [17] and was celebrated by the Festival of Empire in London. In July, the King and Queen visited Ireland for five days they received a warm welcome, with thousands of people lining the route of their procession to cheer. [48] [49] Later in 1911, the King and Queen travelled to India for the Delhi Durbar, where they were presented to an assembled audience of Indian dignitaries and princes as the Emperor and Empress of India on 12 December 1911. George wore the newly created Imperial Crown of India at the ceremony, and declared the shifting of the Indian capital from Calcutta to Delhi. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar. They travelled throughout the sub-continent, and George took the opportunity to indulge in big game hunting in Nepal, shooting 21 tigers, 8 rhinoceroses and a bear over 10 days. [50] He was a keen and expert marksman. [51] On 18 December 1913, he shot over a thousand pheasants in six hours [52] at Hall Barn, the home of Lord Burnham, although even George had to acknowledge that "we went a little too far" that day. [53]

National politics Edit

George inherited the throne at a politically turbulent time. [54] Lloyd George's People's Budget had been rejected the previous year by the Conservative and Unionist-dominated House of Lords, contrary to the normal convention that the Lords did not veto money bills. [55] Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith had asked the previous king to give an undertaking that he would create sufficient Liberal peers to force the budget through the House. Edward had reluctantly agreed, provided the Lords rejected the budget after two successive general elections. After the January 1910 general election, the Conservative peers allowed the budget, for which the government now had an electoral mandate, to pass without a vote. [56]

Asquith attempted to curtail the power of the Lords through constitutional reforms, which were again blocked by the Upper House. A constitutional conference on the reforms broke down in November 1910 after 21 meetings. Asquith and Lord Crewe, Liberal leader in the Lords, asked George to grant a dissolution, leading to a second general election, and to promise to create sufficient Liberal peers if the Lords blocked the legislation again. [57] If George refused, the Liberal government would otherwise resign, which would have given the appearance that the monarch was taking sides—with "the peers against the people"—in party politics. [58] The King's two private secretaries, the Liberal Lord Knollys and the Unionist Lord Stamfordham, gave George conflicting advice. [59] [60] Knollys advised George to accept the Cabinet's demands, while Stamfordham advised George to accept the resignation. [59] Like his father, George reluctantly agreed to the dissolution and creation of peers, although he felt his ministers had taken advantage of his inexperience to browbeat him. [61] After the December 1910 general election, the Lords let the bill pass on hearing of the threat to swamp the house with new peers. [62] The subsequent Parliament Act 1911 permanently removed—with a few exceptions—the power of the Lords to veto bills. The King later came to feel that Knollys had withheld information from him about the willingness of the opposition to form a government if the Liberals had resigned. [63]

The 1910 general elections had left the Liberals as a minority government dependent upon the support of the Irish Nationalist Party. As desired by the Nationalists, Asquith introduced legislation that would give Ireland Home Rule, but the Conservatives and Unionists opposed it. [17] [64] As tempers rose over the Home Rule Bill, which would never have been possible without the Parliament Act, relations between the elderly Knollys and the Conservatives became poor, and he was pushed into retirement. [65] Desperate to avoid the prospect of civil war in Ireland between Unionists and Nationalists, George called a meeting of all parties at Buckingham Palace in July 1914 in an attempt to negotiate a settlement. [66] After four days the conference ended without an agreement. [17] [67] Political developments in Britain and Ireland were overtaken by events in Europe, and the issue of Irish Home Rule was suspended for the duration of the war. [17] [68]

Prvi svjetski rat Edit

On 4 August 1914 the King wrote in his diary, "I held a council at 10.45 to declare war with Germany. It is a terrible catastrophe but it is not our fault. . Please to God it may soon be over." [69] From 1914 to 1918, Britain and its allies were at war with the Central Powers, led by the German Empire. The German Kaiser Wilhelm II, who for the British public came to symbolise all the horrors of the war, was the King's first cousin. The King's paternal grandfather was Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha consequently, the King and his children bore the titles Prince and Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke and Duchess of Saxony. Queen Mary, although born in England like her mother, was the daughter of the Duke of Teck, a descendant of the German Dukes of Württemberg. The King had brothers-in-law and cousins who were British subjects but who bore German titles such as Duke and Duchess of Teck, Prince and Princess of Battenberg, and Prince and Princess of Schleswig-Holstein. When H. G. Wells wrote about Britain's "alien and uninspiring court", George replied: "I may be uninspiring, but I'll be damned if I'm alien." [70]

On 17 July 1917, George appeased British nationalist feelings by issuing a royal proclamation that changed the name of the British royal house from the German-sounding House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor. [71] He and all his British relatives relinquished their German titles and styles and adopted British-sounding surnames. George compensated his male relatives by giving them British peerages. His cousin Prince Louis of Battenberg, who earlier in the war had been forced to resign as First Sea Lord through anti-German feeling, became Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, while Queen Mary's brothers became Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge, and Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone. [72]

In letters patent gazetted on 11 December 1917, the King restricted the style of "Royal Highness" and the titular dignity of "Prince (or Princess) of Great Britain and Ireland" to the children of the Sovereign, the children of the sons of the Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest living son of a Prince of Wales. [74] The letters patent also stated that "the titles of Royal Highness, Highness or Serene Highness, and the titular dignity of Prince and Princess shall cease except those titles already granted and remaining unrevoked". George's relatives who fought on the German side, such as Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, and Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, had their British peerages suspended by a 1919 Order in Council under the provisions of the Titles Deprivation Act 1917. Under pressure from his mother, Queen Alexandra, the King also removed the Garter flags of his German relations from St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. [75]

When Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, George's first cousin, was overthrown in the Russian Revolution of 1917, the British government offered political asylum to the Tsar and his family, but worsening conditions for the British people, and fears that revolution might come to the British Isles, led George to think that the presence of the Romanovs would be seen as inappropriate. [76] Despite the later claims of Lord Mountbatten of Burma that Prime Minister David Lloyd George was opposed to the rescue of the Russian imperial family, the letters of Lord Stamfordham suggest that it was George V who opposed the idea against the advice of the government. [77] Advance planning for a rescue was undertaken by MI1, a branch of the British secret service, [78] but because of the strengthening position of the Bolshevik revolutionaries and wider difficulties with the conduct of the war, the plan was never put into operation. [79] The Tsar and his immediate family remained in Russia, where they were killed by the Bolsheviks in 1918. George wrote in his diary: "It was a foul murder. I was devoted to Nicky, who was the kindest of men and thorough gentleman: loved his country and people." [80] The following year, Nicholas's mother, Marie Feodorovna, and other members of the extended Russian imperial family were rescued from Crimea by a British warship. [81]

Two months after the end of the war, the King's youngest son, John, died at the age of 13 after a lifetime of ill health. George was informed of his death by Queen Mary, who wrote, "[John] had been a great anxiety to us for many years . The first break in the family circle is hard to bear but people have been so kind & sympathetic & this has helped us much." [82]

In May 1922, the King toured Belgium and northern France, visiting the First World War cemeteries and memorials being constructed by the Imperial War Graves Commission. The event was described in a poem, The King's Pilgrimage by Rudyard Kipling. [83] The tour, and one short visit to Italy in 1923, were the only times George agreed to leave the United Kingdom on official business after the end of the war. [84]

Postwar reign Edit

Before the First World War, most of Europe was ruled by monarchs related to George, but during and after the war, the monarchies of Austria, Germany, Greece, and Spain, like Russia, fell to revolution and war. In March 1919, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Lisle Strutt was dispatched on the personal authority of the King to escort the former Emperor Charles I of Austria and his family to safety in Switzerland. [85] In 1922, a Royal Navy ship was sent to Greece to rescue his cousins, Prince and Princess Andrew. [86]

Political turmoil in Ireland continued as the Nationalists fought for independence George expressed his horror at government-sanctioned killings and reprisals to Prime Minister Lloyd George. [87] At the opening session of the Parliament of Northern Ireland on 22 June 1921, the King appealed for conciliation in a speech part drafted by General Jan Smuts and approved by Lloyd George. [88] A few weeks later, a truce was agreed. [89] Negotiations between Britain and the Irish secessionists led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. [90] By the end of 1922, Ireland was partitioned, the Irish Free State was established, and Lloyd George was out of office. [91]

The King and his advisers were concerned about the rise of socialism and the growing labour movement, which they mistakenly associated with republicanism. The socialists no longer believed in their anti-monarchical slogans and were ready to come to terms with the monarchy if it took the first step. George adopted a more democratic, inclusive stance that crossed class lines and brought the monarchy closer to the public and the working class—a dramatic change for the King, who was most comfortable with naval officers and landed gentry. He cultivated friendly relations with moderate Labour Party politicians and trade union officials. His abandonment of social aloofness conditioned the royal family's behaviour and enhanced its popularity during the economic crises of the 1920s and for over two generations thereafter. [92] [93]

The years between 1922 and 1929 saw frequent changes in government. In 1924, George appointed the first Labour Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, in the absence of a clear majority for any one of the three major parties. George's tactful and understanding reception of the first Labour government (which lasted less than a year) allayed the suspicions of the party's sympathisers. During the General Strike of 1926 the King advised the government of Conservative Stanley Baldwin against taking inflammatory action, [94] and took exception to suggestions that the strikers were "revolutionaries" saying, "Try living on their wages before you judge them." [95]

In 1926, George hosted an Imperial Conference in London at which the Balfour Declaration accepted the growth of the British Dominions into self-governing "autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another". The Statute of Westminster 1931 formalised the Dominions' legislative independence [96] and established that the succession to the throne could not be changed unless all the Parliaments of the Dominions as well as the Parliament at Westminster agreed. [17] The Statute's preamble described the monarch as "the symbol of the free association of the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations", who were "united by a common allegiance". [97]

In the wake of a world financial crisis, the King encouraged the formation of a National Government in 1931 led by MacDonald and Baldwin, [98] [99] and volunteered to reduce the civil list to help balance the budget. [98] He was concerned by the rise to power in Germany of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. [100] In 1934, the King bluntly told the German ambassador Leopold von Hoesch that Germany was now the peril of the world, and that there was bound to be a war within ten years if Germany went on at the present rate he warned the British ambassador in Berlin, Eric Phipps, to be suspicious of the Nazis. [101]

In 1932, George agreed to deliver a Royal Christmas speech on the radio, an event that became annual thereafter. He was not in favour of the innovation originally but was persuaded by the argument that it was what his people wanted. [102] By the Silver Jubilee of his reign in 1935, he had become a well-loved king, saying in response to the crowd's adulation, "I cannot understand it, after all I am only a very ordinary sort of fellow." [103]

George's relationship with his eldest son and heir, Edward, deteriorated in these later years. George was disappointed in Edward's failure to settle down in life and appalled by his many affairs with married women. [17] In contrast, he was fond of his second son, Prince Albert (later George VI), and doted on his eldest granddaughter, Princess Elizabeth he nicknamed her "Lilibet", and she affectionately called him "Grandpa England". [104] In 1935, George said of his son Edward: "After I am dead, the boy will ruin himself within 12 months", and of Albert and Elizabeth: "I pray to God my eldest son will never marry and have children, and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne." [105] [106]

The First World War took a toll on George's health: he was seriously injured on 28 October 1915 when thrown by his horse at a troop review in France, and his heavy smoking exacerbated recurring breathing problems. He suffered from chronic bronchitis. In 1925, on the instruction of his doctors, he was reluctantly sent on a recuperative private cruise in the Mediterranean it was his third trip abroad since the war, and his last. [107] In November 1928, he fell seriously ill with septicaemia, and for the next two years his son Edward took over many of his duties. [108] In 1929, the suggestion of a further rest abroad was rejected by the King "in rather strong language". [109] Instead, he retired for three months to Craigweil House, Aldwick, in the seaside resort of Bognor, Sussex. [110] As a result of his stay, the town acquired the suffix "Regis", which is Latin for "of the King". A myth later grew that his last words, upon being told that he would soon be well enough to revisit the town, were "Bugger Bognor!" [111] [112] [113]

George never fully recovered. In his final year, he was occasionally administered oxygen. [114] The death of his favourite sister, Victoria, in December 1935 depressed him deeply. On the evening of 15 January 1936, the King took to his bedroom at Sandringham House complaining of a cold he remained in the room until his death. [115] He became gradually weaker, drifting in and out of consciousness. Prime Minister Baldwin later said:

each time he became conscious it was some kind inquiry or kind observation of someone, some words of gratitude for kindness shown. But he did say to his secretary when he sent for him: "How is the Empire?" An unusual phrase in that form, and the secretary said: "All is well, sir, with the Empire", and the King gave him a smile and relapsed once more into unconsciousness. [116]

By 20 January, he was close to death. His physicians, led by Lord Dawson of Penn, issued a bulletin with the words "The King's life is moving peacefully towards its close." [117] [118] Dawson's private diary, unearthed after his death and made public in 1986, reveals that the King's last words, a mumbled "God damn you!", [119] were addressed to his nurse, Catherine Black, when she gave him a sedative that night. Dawson, who supported the "gentle growth of euthanasia", [120] admitted in the diary that he hastened the King's death by injecting him, after 11.00 p.m., with two consecutive lethal injections: 3/4 of a grain of morphine followed shortly afterwards by a grain of cocaine. [119] [121] Dawson wrote that he acted to preserve the King's dignity, to prevent further strain on the family, and so that the King's death at 11:55 p.m. could be announced in the morning edition of Vrijeme newspaper rather than "less appropriate . evening journals". [119] [121] Neither Queen Mary, who was intensely religious and might not have sanctioned euthanasia, nor the Prince of Wales was consulted. The royal family did not want the King to endure pain and suffering and did not want his life prolonged artificially but neither did they approve Dawson's actions. [122] British Pathé announced the King's death the following day, in which he was described as "more than a King, a father of a great family". [123]

The German composer Paul Hindemith went to a BBC studio on the morning after the King's death and in six hours wrote Trauermusik (Mourning Music). It was performed that same evening in a live broadcast by the BBC, with Adrian Boult conducting the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the composer as soloist. [124]

At the procession to George's lying in state in Westminster Hall part of the Imperial State Crown fell from on top of the coffin and landed in the gutter as the cortège turned into New Palace Yard. The new king, Edward VIII, saw it fall and wondered whether it was a bad omen for his new reign. [125] [126] As a mark of respect to their father, George's four surviving sons, Edward, Albert, Henry, and George, mounted the guard, known as the Vigil of the Princes, at the catafalque on the night before the funeral. [127] The vigil was not repeated until the death of George's daughter-in-law, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, in 2002. George V was interred at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 28 January 1936. [128] Edward abdicated before the year was out, leaving Albert to ascend the throne as George VI.

George V disliked sitting for portraits [17] and despised modern art he was so displeased by one portrait by Charles Sims that he ordered it to be burned. [129] He did admire sculptor Bertram Mackennal, who created statues of George for display in Madras and Delhi, and William Reid Dick, whose statue of George V stands outside Westminster Abbey, London. [17]

George preferred to stay at home pursuing his hobbies of stamp collecting and game shooting, and he lived a life that later biographers considered dull because of its conventionality. [130] He was not an intellectual on returning from one evening at the opera, he wrote in his journal, "Went to Covent Garden and saw Fidelio and damned dull it was." [131] Nonetheless, he was earnestly devoted to Britain and its Commonwealth. [132] He explained, "it has always been my dream to identify myself with the great idea of Empire." [133] He appeared hard-working and became widely admired by the people of Britain and the Empire, as well as "the Establishment". [134] In the words of historian David Cannadine, King George V and Queen Mary were an "inseparably devoted couple" who upheld "character" and "family values". [135]

George established a standard of conduct for British royalty that reflected the values and virtues of the upper middle-class rather than upper-class lifestyles or vices. [136] Acting within his constitutional bounds, he dealt skilfully with a succession of crises: Ireland, the First World War, and the first socialist minority government in Britain. [17] He was by temperament a traditionalist who never fully appreciated or approved the revolutionary changes underway in British society. [137] Nevertheless, he invariably wielded his influence as a force of neutrality and moderation, seeing his role as mediator rather than final decision-maker. [138]

Titles and styles Edit

  • 3 June 1865 – 24 May 1892: His Royal Highness Prince George of Wales
  • 24 May 1892 – 22 January 1901: His Royal Highness Vojvoda od Yorka
  • 22 January – 9 November 1901: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall and York
  • 9 November 1901 – 6 May 1910: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
  • 6 May 1910 – 20 January 1936: His Majesty The King

His full style as king was "George V, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India" until the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927, when it changed to "George V, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India". [139]

British honours Edit

  • KG: Royal Knight of the Garter, 4 August 1884[140]
  • KT: Knight of the Thistle, 5 July 1893[140]
  • Sub-Prior of the Venerable Order of St. John, 1893[141]
  • PC: Privy Counsellor, 18 July 1894[140]
      , 20 August 1897[140]
  • Military appointments Edit

    Military ranks and naval appointments Edit

    • September 1877: Cadet, HMS Britannia[146]
    • 8 January 1880: Midshipman, HMS Bacchante and the corvette HMS Kanada[140]
    • 3 June 1884: Sub-Lieutenant, Royal Navy [140]
    • 8 October 1885: Lieutenant, HMS Thunderer HMS Drednot HMS Aleksandra HMS Northumberland[140]
    • July 1889 I/C HMS Torpedo Boat 79 [147]
    • By May 1890 I/C the gunboat HMS Thrush[148]
    • 24 August 1891: Commander, I/C HMS Melampus[140]
    • 2 January 1893: Captain, Royal Navy [140]
    • 1 January 1901: Rear-Admiral, Royal Navy [140][149]
    • 26 June 1903: Vice-Admiral, Royal Navy [140]
    • 1 March 1907: Admiral, Royal Navy [140][150]
    • 1910: Admiral of the Fleet, Royal Navy [140]
    • 1910: Field Marshal, British Army [150]
    • 1919: Chief of the Royal Air Force (title not rank) [151]

    Honorary military appointments Edit

    • 21 June 1887: Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen [152]
    • 18 July 1900: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)[153]
    • 1 January 1901: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Marine Forces[154]
    • 25 February 1901: Personal Naval Aide-de-Camp to the King [155]
    • 29 November 1901: Honorary Colonel of the 4th County of London Yeomanry Regiment (King's Colonials)[156]
    • 21 December 1901: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers[157]
    • 12 November 1902: Colonel-in-Chief of the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders[158]
    • April 1917: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Flying Corps (Naval and Military Wings) [159]

    Foreign honours Edit

    • Knight of the Order of the Elephant (Denmark), 11 October 1885[140][160]
    • Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order (Ernestine duchies), 1885[161]
    • Grand Cross of the Sash of the Two Orders (Kingdom of Portugal), 20 May 1886[162]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III (Spain), 20 May 1888[163]
    • Knight with Collar of the Order of the Black Eagle (Prussia), [140][164]8 August 1889[165]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle (Prussia), [164]8 August 1889
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Württemberg Crown (Württemberg), 1890[166] (Denmark), 9 September 1891[160]
    • Knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Italy), 28 April 1892[167]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the White Falcon (Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach), 1892[168]
    • Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Spain), 17 July 1893[169]
    • Grand Cross of the House Order of the Wendish Crown (Mecklenburg), 1893[170]
    • Knight of the Order of St. Andrew (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight of the Order of the White Eagle (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight 1st Class of the Order of St. Anna (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Knight 1st Class of the Order of St. Stanislaus (Russian Empire), 1893[171][172]
    • Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (Japan), 13 April 1902[173]
    • Knight of the Order of the Rue Crown (Saxony), October 1902[140][174]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen (Austria-Hungary), 1902[175]
    • Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France), July 1903[176]
    • Knight of the Order of the Seraphim (Sweden), 14 June 1905[140][177]
    • Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Charles III (Spain), 30 May 1906[178]
    • Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Carol I (Romania), 1910[179]
    • Collar of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (Japan), 30 March 1911[180]
    • Knight of the Order of St. Hubert (Bavaria), 1911[164][181]
    • Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog (Denmark), 18 April 1913[182]
    • Grand Commander with Diamonds of the Order of the Dannebrog (Denmark), 9 May 1914[183]
    • Grand Commander of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern (Prussia) [164]
    • Member 1st Class with Diamonds of the Order of Osmanieh (Ottoman Empire) [140]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer (Greece) [144]
    • King Christian IX Jubilee Medal (Denmark) [144]
    • King Christian IX Centenary Medal (Denmark) [160]
    • King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark Golden Wedding Commemorative Medal (Denmark) [144][160]
    • Knight 3rd Class of the Order of St. George (Russian Empire), 14 March 1918[184]
    • Grand Cross of the Sash of the Three Orders (Portuguese Republic), 1919[185]
    • Knight with Collar of the Order of Muhammad Ali (Egypt), 1920[186] , Grade I Class I (Estonia), 17 June 1925[187]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of the Colonial Empire (Portuguese Republic), 19 February 1934[188]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of San Marino (San Marino) [189]
    • Knight with Collar of the Order of Solomon (Ethiopia), 1935[190]

    Honorary foreign military appointments Edit

    • 1 February 1901: À la suite of the Imperial German Navy[191]
    • 26 January 1902: Colonel-in-Chief of the Rhenish Cuirassier Regiment "Count Geßler" No. 8 (Prussia) [192]
    • 24 May 1910: Admiral of the Royal Danish Navy[193]
    • Honorary Colonel of the Infantry Regiment "Zamora" No. 8 (Spain) [194][195]
    • 1923: Honorary Admiral of the Swedish Navy[196]

    Honorary degrees and offices Edit

    • 8 June 1893: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society, [140] installed 6 February 1902[197]
    • 1899: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of the Cape of Good Hope[198]
    • 1901: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of Sydney[199]
    • 1901: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of Toronto[200]
    • 1901: Doctor of Civil Law (DCL), Queen's University, Ontario [201]
    • 1902: Doctor of Laws (LLD), University of Wales[202]
    • 1901: Chancellor of the University of Cape Town[203]
    • 1901–1912: Chancellor of the University of the Cape of Good Hope[198]
    • 1902–1910: Chancellor of the University of Wales[202]

    Arms Edit

    As Duke of York, George's arms were the royal arms, with an inescutcheon of the arms of Saxony, all differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing an anchor azure. The anchor was removed from his coat of arms as the Prince of Wales. As King, he bore the royal arms. In 1917, he removed, by warrant, the Saxony inescutcheon from the arms of all male-line descendants of the Prince Consort domiciled in the United Kingdom (although the royal arms themselves had never borne the shield). [204]


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Komentari:

  1. Hadad

    Smatram da niste u pravu. Predlažem da razgovaraju. Pišite mi u PM, komunicirat ćemo.

  2. Giolla Chriost

    cool !!!



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